JustCite Content FAQ

Answers to the most commonly asked questions about JustCite’s content can be found below. Click on the question to see the answer..

Case Law

How can I find a case where the party names are anonymised?

This can be very challenging because many different cases may use the same letter or letters to refer to the anonymised party. The best approach is to use the Advanced Search to specify the court as well as the party name; for example, enter ‘S’ in the Parties field and ‘protection’ in the Court field. If necessary, you can then use the text filter to filter by subject area.

How does JustCite select which cases appear under Key Cases Considered and Key Subsequent Cases?

JustCite selects linked cases to display on the Overview page based on the strength of the treatment relationship with the instant case, rather than the relative importance of the linked cases per se.

When I click a Westlaw digest link for a Lloyd’s report, why am I taken to the full text of the case from another series?

Westlaw appears to retain digest information only for a subset of the Lloyd’s Reports cases. However, they include the Lloyd’s citation under Where Reported for all Lloyd’s cases for which they have the full text in another series. Where no digest is found under the Lloyd’s citation, but they have the full text in another series, they will display the latter. This is an aspect of Westlaw’s functionality which it is not open to us to change. This will also be true of other series on Westlaw where there may be no digest but there is an alternative full-text report.

The Lloyd’s series are carried in full text on i-law.

Why can’t I find case X on JustCite?

A case will not appear on JustCite if all of the following are true:

  1. It does not appear in an indexed title; and
  2. It is not referenced by a document appearing in an indexed title; and
  3. It does not appear in the unreported transcripts received from CaseTrack.

Based on the above, it will be obvious that, at least within England and Wales, it is relatively unusual for a case to be entirely unknown to JustCite. It is therefore always worth checking your search terms and trying a few different approaches – searching by name rather than citation, for instance – before assuming that the case is missing. If in doubt, contact the Helpdesk.

Why does BAILII say “not found” when I click on the link under the neutral citation?

This probably means that the case is not on BAILII.

We place the link to BAILII under the neutral citation along with links to other unreported transcript providers, such as Casetrack and Lawtel. However, not every case which has a neutral citation appears on BAILII, and we have no way to tell which do and which do not since a case’s appearance on BAILII is often a matter of judicial discretion. See the Unreported Cases page for more information.

Why does the same citation appear at multiple appellate stages in the citation concertina?

Sometimes, a report of an appellate judgment will include the text of the judgment of the lower court in full. Occasionally, a case’s entire appellate history may be encompassed within a single report. The report of ex parte Oladehinde in The Law Reports is an example of such a case.

Why is some data marked as N/A?

N/A stands for not applicable. There are two main reasons data could be marked this way under certain headings.

1. The heading in question does not apply to the type of content.

Data comes into JustCite from many different sources and content providers. Some sources are controlled by the JustCite Editorial team, whereas some are Data Feeds from fellow publishers.Since the information provided differs between document types, some headings do not apply to certain titles.

For example: The Editorial Team do not mark up Data Feeds, so any Data Feed will have a Marked Up From date of N/A.

2. The JustCite Editorial Team are not responsible for the content.

Where data comes in from other publishers, it is often difficult to be certain of the coverage and completeness provided. Where we cannot be certain of the date ranges involved, we will mark the coverage as N/A.

For more information on data source types, please see the Editorial Policies Section.

Why is there a House of Lords/Supreme Court citation for this case, but no indication of whether the CA’s decision was affirmed or reversed?

This will usually occur where one of the parties petitioned the Lords or the Supreme Court for leave to appeal, and leave was refused. The fact of the petition and refusal will be reported, often in volume 1 of the Weekly Law Reports, but there will be no consideration of the CA’s decision by the superior court and so no crosslink indicating a treatment type is added.


Citations in Context

Citations in Context? What does it do?

When a case is cited you may be interested in reading the specific paragraphs in the citing judgment that referenced the case before reading the whole judgment.

Citations in Context will show you all the paragraphs in which the case in question has been mentioned, allowing you to read the most pertinent information. This will enable you to quickly ascertain the relevance of a judgment in your research, and will speed up the process of identifying more relevant authorities.

Do all cases have Citations in Context?

Only cases that appear in the Justis database can be included in this presentation method – specifically drawn from the England & Wales Judgments.

Primarily, cases with Neutral Citations from the Court of Appeal (Civil and Criminal Divisions) the House of Lords or the Supreme Court will be included, so you will find the most information on cases after 2001.

Cases reported in the following series may also contain citations in context:

- The Law Reports
- The Weekly Law Reports
- Criminal Appeal Reports
- Lloyd’s Law Reports
- Industrial Cases Reports
- Business Law Reports

Some cases are not referred to by their neutral citation in a judgment, and others are referred to by a name that differs slightly from the one attached to the JustCite record, making them hard to match up. Therefore, citations in context may not appear on every case considered.

Does that mean I don’t need to read the full text?

Not necessarily, although it should make your selection of cases more discerning. Citations in Context will only show paragraphs where the specific case is mentioned, but the judgment may well discuss the legal issue at a far greater depth.

Citations in Context is a guide for focusing your research and is not a replacement for legal research or advice.

I ran a search for the sentence in paragraph X but the case didn’t come up.

The JustCite search bar does not look through the paragraphs provided by Citations in Context – JustCite searches through the index of legal keywords, case names and citations.Therefore a search for a sentence from a judgment will not succeed.

To run searches of that nature, you should use a full text engine such as Justis.

I want to read the full text of the case!

Click the Full Text Links button on the left hand side. This will show you a list of citations. Select any citation to see instant links to any full text provider.

JustCite does not contain the full text of the judgments.

Why are certain cases at the top of the list?

Where Citations in Context are available, JustCite will put the cases which appear more frequently at the top of the list. This means the authorities relied upon more often are higher up, so you know which cases you should focus your research upon.


EU Materials

How can I find other national implementations of a Directive?

If you have access to the Justis CELEX database, then simply click on the full text Justis link on the information page of the Directive. You will find all national implementations after the full text of the Directive.

If you do not have access to Justis, then find the Directive on JustCite. Make a note of its CELEX number. Then, change the leading 3 on the CELEX number to a 7. Search JustCite for the CELEX number thus modified; you will be taken to the JustCite page for the relevant National Implementations document. Click the full-text link on any database, then select the country of your choice from the list.

What kinds of information can be found in Other Citing Cases?

Other Citing Cases comprises two kinds of information:

  1. European Court decisions reported in other report series; and
  2. Selected decisions of the domestic courts of the member states of the EU on points of law falling within the EU’s competencies

Why can’t I find EU documents using yy/xxx/EC references in the Advanced Search?

The Reference field in the EU advanced search looks only for CELEX numbers. If you want to look for “friendly” references such as 93/104/EC or C-22/05, you should put them in the Title field instead or, ideally, the main Search box.

Why do I get multiple results when I search for an EU case?

When you search for an EU case by name, as opposed to a particular document from that case by CELEX number, and that case stems from a preliminary reference from a domestic court of a member state, JustCite will generally return at least the following as results:

  1. Notice in the Official Journal C Series that the preliminary reference has been made;
  2. Opinion of the Advocate General on the reference; and
  3. Judgment of the Court on the reference.

The nature of the CELEX database means that these will be separate entities and will therefore appear as several results, even though they all pertain to the same case.

In addition to the above there may also be further references for clarification or additional explanation made by the domestic court (example), and, if the judgment is an important one, it may also be reported in domestic case report series. If the preliminary reference came from a court of England and Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland or the Republic of Ireland, any report of the domestic case is likely to be returned also.



I am a barrister. How can I modify or augment my Havers profile on JustCite?

We publish the information we receive from Havers verbatim. We cannot modify the information on our site directly, as this would not affect the information held by Havers at their own site, or the information published on Lawtel or Westlaw.

Therefore, the best way to ensure that your Havers profile is up to date is to use Havers’ own updating facility. You can access this facility by visting Havers’ site directly.

Why are some of my Representative Cases not linked to JustCite Case Information Pages?

Links to JustCite Case Information Pages will normally be generated automatically where a complete, correct citation in a series recognised by JustCite is provided. Where no citation or an incomplete or inaccurate citation is given, links cannot be generated automatically. In due course our Editors will be processing these cases further and, where possible, identifying the relevant case entries on JustCite and correcting the citations. However, it will probably be quicker to log in to Havers’ barrister updating site and correct the given citation.



Can I find legislation by regnal year?

JustCite can find legislation by regnal year. However, the regnal year citation does have to be in the correct format. This differs from JustCite’s usual forgiving handling of citations, and stems from the need to convert the regnal year into a calendar year.

Some examples of valid regnal year citations:

  • 48 & 49 Vict. c. 69
  • 1 Hen. 6 c. 1
  • 4 & 5 Ph. & M c. 2

Note the placement of the dots and spaces.

Alternatively, you can use our regnal year ready reckoner to find the corresponding calendar year for yourself.

Does JustCite include changes in the text of legislation?

JustCite is an index, not a full text service, so it does not include the text of legislation at all.

Instead, JustCite links to a number of different external providers, including:

  • As Enacted legislation on Justis
  • Consolidated legislation on Lexis
  • Point in Time legislation on Westlaw
  • As Enacted, Point in Time and Part-Consolidated legislation on Legislation.gov.uk

Additionally, JustCite provides an amendment trail showing how subsequent legislation has affected the instant provision.

How are the Civil Procedure Rules handled on JustCite?

Internally, JustCite treats the Civil Procedure Rules as secondary legislation. There is an entry for each Part, and for each accompanying Practice Direction. Crosslinks to Cases and Journal Articles are provided.

What do codes like [EW, NI] next to a legislative amendment mean?

These codes denote the jurisdictional scope of the amendment. Not every amendment has effect in all of the jurisdictions within the UK; in the above example, the codes indicate that the amendment is resticted to England and Wales (EW) and Northern Ireland (NI), and does not apply to Scotland (S).

What does the abbreviation “part prosp” mean next to a legislative amendment?

“Part prosp” is short for “part prospective” and is used where part of an amendment is in force and part is not.

Why can’t I find the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 by searching for ‘pace’?

“Pace” is a dictionary word and the effect of mapping it to the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 would be to exclude legitimate search results with the word “pace” in their title or keywords, such as Pace Shipping Co Ltd v Churchgate Nigeria Ltd [2010] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 183.

Why is a provision shown as amending a later Act?

JustCite follows the policies adopted by OPSI for the Chronological Tables. Before 2007, OPSI’s Chronological Tables listed effects made by inserted sections as being sourced from the inserted section, which can appear as though an earlier provision amends a later provision. Since the policy changed in 2007, JustCite has marked these effects against the inserting provision instead.


New Content

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Please could you index this series on JustCite?

We always welcome suggestions for new content to be indexed. If you have a particular request, tell us by email. All requests are considered and most are taken up.