Boolean OperatorsJustCite supports all the usual Boolean operators including
ANDBoth words must appear at least once in the fields requested. The search
disclosure AND documentwill return a result containing:
The court ordered the disclosure of the document.Note that the
ANDoperator will always be implied unless:
- the terms are enclosed in double quotation marks, or;
NOToperators are specified explicitly instead.
corporation taxwill return the same results as
corporation AND tax, whereas
"corporation tax"will return only those results containing that precise phrase.
TIP: For the avoidance of doubt, it should be said that this behaviour in treating the
AND as implied corresponds to that of Justis and Westlaw, but is the direct opposite of how Lexis Library behaves.
ORAt least one of the words either side must be present in the document, but not necessarily both. The search
homicide OR murderwill return both
- The Homicide Act has been amended.
- The sentence for murder has been extended.
OR operator is especially useful when searching by subject keyword as it enables you to broaden your search to encompass multiple synonyms or near-synonyms.
NOTAny document containing the subsequent word is removed from the search results. The search
judicial review NOT criminalwould exclude a document containing the phrase:
This is an application for judicial review in the context of a criminal appeal.The
NOToperator is very powerful, be careful you do not accidentally exclude useful results.
TIP: The search operators are not case sensitive: Both
or produce the same result.
Proximity OperatorsJustCite allows you to search for terms that appear within a certain distance from one another. JustCite supports the standard
w/xsyntax, as well as the long form
within x of. The search
injunction w/5 interimwould return the following keywords:
Civil Procedure, Interim InjunctionThe search would not return the following:
Injunction, Family Law, Failure to comply with Order, Interim Payments
TIP: We have predefined the word
near as a shorthand for
within 10 of. You can also specify a word sequence within the proximity range using the form
w/x before or
ANDsearch are somewhat limited.
Wildcard OperatorsJustCite supports the following wildcard operators:
- Asterisk (*) – stem search to check different correct word endings
child*would return the results child, children, childish
- Question Mark (?) – character substitution – searching for a single unknown character
wom?nwould return woman or women
- Tilde (~) – fuzzy/”near match” search which allows for spelling mistakes.
smith~would return smith, smithe, smyth, smits
- Hyphen (-) – matches hyphenated and unhyphenated forms of the search term
life-boatwill match “life-boat”, “life boat” and “lifeboat”.
NOTE: If no results are returned on a literal search, a fuzzy search will be carried out automatically and the permutation with the most numerous results selected. Therefore, it is only necessary to use the fuzzy search operator explicitly when you want to match multiple variations within a single set of results.
Year Range OperatorsThere are two differing syntaxes for using year range operators, depending on whether you are using the general Search or the Advanced Search. In the general search, you must use the field restrictor
Year [ date search string ]. For example:
Year [before 1932]
Year [from 1995 to 2005]
Year [after 2001]
Year [ ]and simply enter the operators directly in the date search boxes. For example:
from 1995 to 2005
Nesting OperatorsJustCite supports the use of parentheses to “nest” your search terms and operators, thereby forcing JustCite to process them in a certain order. Consider the following search:
"Anton Piller" or search and order or injunctionJustCite will return results containing any of the following:
- The phrase
- The two terms
- The word
("Anton Piller" or search) and (order or injunction)This time JustCite will return results containing:
- Either the phrase
"Anton Piller"or the word
- Either the word
orderor the word